Program Equivalence by Circular Coinduction

We propose a deductive system for automatically proving the equivalence of programs written in deterministic languages that have a formal, term-rewriting based operational semantics. Symbolic programs (i.e., programs in which some statements or expressions are symbolic variables) can also be proved equivalent using the proposed approach. The deductive system is circular in nature and is proved sound and weakly complete; together, these results say that, when it terminates, our system correctly solves the program-equivalence problem as we state it. We show that the deductive system is suitable for proving equivalence both for terminating and non-terminating programs. We also report on a prototype implementation of the proposed system in the K Framework. 

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