Semantic Web Languages – Towards an Institutional Perspective

The Semantic Web (SW) is viewed as the next generation of the Web

that enables intelligent software agents to process and aggregate data autonomously.

Ontology languages provide basic vocabularies to semantically markup data

on the SW.We have witnessed an increase of numbers of SWlanguages in the last

years. These languages, such as RDF, RDF Schema (RDFS), the OWL suite of

languages, the OWLsuite, SWRL, are based on different semantics, such as the

RDFS-based, description logic-based, Datalog-based semantics. The relationship

among the various semantics poses a challenge for the SW community for making

the languages interoperable. Institutions provide a means of reasoning about

software specifications regardless of the logical system. This makes it an ideal

candidate to represent and reason about the various languages in the Semantic

Web. In this paper, we construct institutions for the SW languages and use institution

morphisms to relate them. We show that RDF framework together with the

RDF serializations of SW languages form an indexed institution. This allows the

use of Grothendieck institutions to combine Web ontologies described in various